In-text citations

Always provide the following if available (APA, 2020, p. 262):

  • author(s) - author last name only. If there is no author, use the title (abbreviate it, if it's long) (APA, 2020, p.265)
  • year - if there is no year, use n.d.
  • For direct quotations (optional if you paraphrase):
  • provide a specific page number(s);
  • if there is no page number, provide another locator (such as a section name, chapter/paragraph heading and/or number for online sources). If shortening a long heading, put it in quotation marks;
  • the word page is abbreviated to p. and pages to pp.;
  • the word chapter is written in full;
  • paragraph is abbreviated to para. (APA, 2020, p.273).


  • According to Marketline (2010), "direct quotation" (p. 34).
  • "Direct_quotation" (Acer, Inc., 2010, Environmental Scan).
  • Brown and Clark (2012) reported that ...
  • ....... (Brown & Clark, 2012)
  • "Direct quotation" (Jones, n.d., pp. 5-6).
  • As stated by Yee (2016), "direct quotation" (para. 4).

List works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author's surname or group/organization name (APA, 2020, p. 263).


  • .....(Bureau van Dijk, 2010; Datamonitor, 2009; Simpson, 2010).

Capitalize all proper nouns and titles within the body of the paper (APA, 2020, p.165-167).


  • According to the Nielsen Global Consumer Confidence Survey of 2010 [...]
  • In the book Business Ethics as Rational Choice, Hooker claims that [...]