Capitalization and italics of titles in references will vary depending on what kind of resource is involved.

In the notes below:

  • Sentence case capitalization means that you capitalize only the first word of the title and the subtitle and all proper nouns.
  • Title case capitalization means that you capitalize all major words.

Books and reports

- Italicize titles and subtitles; sentence case capitalization (APA, 2020, p. 291)

- Sample: IBISWorld industry report 52213CA: Credit unions in Canada.

-Include report number if it helps to find the item. Put round brackets around the report number. Capitalize Research Report or whatever the category is called. The report number is not in italics. Put the period after the round brackets. ...., e.g. Mental health and well-being in the workplace: What works and why it makes business sense (Research Report R-1624-17).

Periodical titles

- Italicize titles and subtitles; title case capitalization (APA, 2020, p. 294)

- Samples:

International Business Review
BC Business

Article titles

- Do not italicize; sentence case capitalization (APA, 2020, p. 291)

- Sample: An abnormally abnormally intangible: Stock returns on customer satisfaction

Missing title

Sometimes a source has no clear title -- this can happen with sources such as tables or maps generated from searches within some databases.

In such cases, you should write a very brief description of the resource within square brackets containing information that would help your reader find or recreate the same source (table, map, etc.). Do not italicize in this case. For example, your square brackets might include the variables you searched for to create a table.(See APA's Missing Reference Information page)

Example: [Lay's Lightly Salted for Canada M&F age 12+ by province].


Many business sources such as country, industry, and company reports are part of ongoing series. There are multiple ways to refer to such series. For consistency and simplicity we have chosen to create a single title based on how the information is formatted on the title page. For example, if the Report title is the more prominent element, use it first, and use the less prominent element as the subtitle: Report title: Series title.

Mexico: Country report
BlackBerry Limited: Company profile

Other types of works

Include a description of the type of work in square brackets if it's other than an article, book, report, etc. Examples include press releases, fact sheets, films, YouTube videos, photographs, software, apps, data sets, dissertations and theses (APA, 2020, p. 292).